Mitegro  >  Dictionary  >  A-Z

ABAP is a programming language of the software company SAP, which was developed for creating commercial applications in the realm of SAP and which remotely resembles the programming language COBOL in its basic structure. See also the term »COBOL«.

Adware ist formed out of the English word ad[vertisement] and [soft]ware and mostly refers to free programs which show adverts to the user while using a PC (refinancing). In part, adverts are also displayed via additionally installed software (perhaps as a browser add-on).

An algorithm is a defined calculation specification for schematically solving a problem or a series of problems. It consists of many well-defined single steps and can be compiled in a natural or machine-readable language. Thereby, an algorithm can not only be processed by a computer program, but also by a human. In the problem-solving process a specific entry is transferred to a specific task.

The adjective alphanumeric limits the available character set to letters, numerals and a few other alphabetical symbols (i.e.,.A–Z; 0–9; mathematical symbols, punctuation marks and some other symbols). The concrete character set is determined by the character encoding (ASCII, Unicode etc.). Example: A, z, 5, !.

An API (abbreviation for English »application programming interface«) is an application programming interface over which external applications and their data can be integrated into own applications. Other than by BaaS the external application is not visibly used, but is only accessed in internal program execution. Example: Interface on definition output after entering a term (Dictionary). See also term »Backend as a Service« (BaaS).

An App (abbreviation for English »Application«) is a general term for all types of applications: in the internet, in mobile systems, contained in the operating system. Example: Weather information; home automation (smart home); Office Software.

»Artificial Intelligence« (abbreviated to KI) is a general term to describe methods (algorithms) which enable a computer to solve tasks which by human processing ……..

With »Augmented Reality« (abbreviated to AR) a reality is defined which extends to artificial elements. Example: Overlaying of informative texts at tourist sites. See also terms »Mixed Reality«, »Virtual Reality«.

See the term »Augmented Reality«.

With B2B (abbreviation for English Business-to-Business) the part of the market is defined where offers are made and services provided from businesses to businesses. See also the term »B2C«.

With B2C (abbreviation for English Business-to-Consumer) the part of the market is defined where offers are made and services provided from businesses to consumers. See also the term »B2B«.

Cloud-based Backend/Business, see the term »Backend as a Service« or »Business as a Service«.

Backend refers to system-related components (data processing, above all at the Server), while Frontend is closer to the user (Data input/ output). See also term »Server«.

The term Backend as a Service (abbreviated to BaaS) is understood to mean a user interface with which you can access a programming environment in the browser. As a result, Backend applications for Apps and mobile web sites in the browser can be created with the help of abstract steps. Frequently, modules are available for integrating social media and data or for sending messages. See also the terms »App«, »Backend«, »Cloud«.

Beacons are small signal transmitters which serve the purpose of contactless identification and localisation of people and objects. In the industrial production sector they are used, for example, to identify components, machinery and staff. Example: RFID-Chip. See also term »RFID«.

The term »Big Data« is understood to mean large amounts of data which, amongst others, derive from sources like the internet (above all social media), financial industry or intelligent agents. The data are saved, processed and evaluated with special tools. Example: Pandemic outbreaks through sickness notification on Twitter; investigating trends.

Bit is formed out of the English word b[inary dig]it) and constitutes the smallest unit for information. A Bit can in its binary representation only have two states: Zero (0) or one (1). Eight Bits form a Byte. See also the term »Byte«.

Bit/s (Bit per Second) is the unit of measurement for the speed of data transmission. Example: A cable connection usually transmits data from the Internet with a speed of 100 MBits/s.

Block Chain refers to a type of data bank (data chain) which displays the following advantages: Decoding, decentralisation and consensus mechanisms from the network. Associated with this are characteristics such as counterfeit protection, indelibility, traceability. Thereby, a Block Chain is suitable for saving property rights or other highly sensitive data. Example: Managing digital currencies such as Bitcoin. See also the term »Decentrality«.

The term Bot is understood to mean a computer program which largely automatically executes repetitive tasks without being dependent on intervention by the user. Example: Webcrawler, Chatbot. See also the terms »Algorithmus«, »Webcrawler«, »Chatbot«.

A program to depict the multimedial and hypertextual contents in the World Wide Web (Websites), in which complex Apps can also be loaded (e.g., Office Web App, internet games). Example: Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome. See also term »World Wide Web«.

The BSI (Abbreviation for »Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik« (German Federal Office for Information Technology Security)) is an independent state body for questions on IT security in the information society.

Business as a Service (abbreviated to BaaS) forms the highest specification of all Cloud services and contains the levels Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS, also Server), Platform as a Service (PaaS, execution environments) and Software as a Service (SaaS, Apps). Consequently, the principle Everything as a Service (XaaS) is primarily referred to. See also the terms »Cloud«, »App«, »XaaS«.

A Byte contains the sequence of eight Bits (e.g., 01010101) and is a unit of measurement of digital technology/informatics (originally for a character). The unit is known for information on data capacity: 1 kilobyte (kB) = 1 000 bytes (10^3 = 10 with three zeros), 1 megabyte (MB) = 1 000 KB, 1 terabyte (TB) = 1 000 MB; gigabyte (10^9), terabyte (10^12), petabyte (10^15), exabyte (10^18), zettabyte (10^21), yottabyte (10^24) hold true. See also the term »Bit«.

CAD (Abbreviation for the English word »computer-aided design«) is used to refer to the support of constructive tasks by means of EDP for manufacturing a product (e.g., car, building, electronic casing).

A Captcha (Short for the English term »C[ompletely] A[utomated] P[ublic] T[uring test to tell] C[omputers and] H[umans] A[part]«) is used to ascertain whether a human - and certainly no machine (program/Bot) - has executed entries in a web form. Example: Carrying out tasks that only a human can undertake. See also the term »Web«.

»Caring Companies« are companies which put great emphasis on a high proportion of salaried and long-term employees, encouraging loyalty in various ways.

With a Chatbot or digital agent interested parties and customers can communicate without human support; the interaction of the user is therefore required in this case. Examples: A virtual agent on a website that frequently answers questions and if required passes them on to human agents. See also the term »Bot«.

A Client is a computer or program that makes use of the services of a server (Client-Server-Architecture). Example: Visiting a website via a client which is provided by the server. See also the term »Server«.

In a Cloud infrastructure, platforms and applications are provided via the internet, making some servers for data storage/processing and application development redundant. Example: Dropbox as ›Network Drive‹ in the internet.

The programme language COBOL (the abbreviation for »Common Business Oriented Language«) is an early programming language which is based on the natural language and is primarily used for programming business applications.

A Cookie is in its original form a text file on a computer. It is saved and/or read when visiting websites and contains data such as surfing chronicle, preferences, access data. Fundamentally therefore, cookies serve the purpose of saving related information from websites or rather a domain locally for a specific period of time on the computer and on request to transmit it again to the server. Example: language setting; user authentication.

CRM (abbreviation for »Customer Relationship Management«) is a term used to refer to the consistent customer orientation of a company and the systematic management of customer relationships. As a form of marketing CRM is targeted at a long-term relationship to customers with individual support/contact.

Curated offers distinguish themselves through a connection by E-commerce (online shopping) for simultaneous professional advice through the specialist trade. See also »E-Commerce«.

»Curated Shopping« refers to connecting E-commerce (online shopping) and advice from specialist dealers. See also the terms »Curated offers«, »E-Commerce«.

Debian is a free operating system that is based on Linux and - unlike Unix - contains a large number of programs. See also the term »GNU«.

Whereas in a traditional network a server serves several clients, a distinguishing feature of a decentralised structure is that services, data and data traffic are distributed among many computers. This guarantees, for example, the availability even when a subnetwork goes down. Example: Exchange platforms. See also terms »Server«, »Client«.

An innovation is referred to as disruptive technology when an existing technology (product or service) is potentially completely forced out of the market. Examples: Digital camera (instead of analogue camera), smartphone (instead of mobile).

DNS (abbreviation for »Domain Name System«) is a worldwide distributed directory service which translates easily remembered domain names (e.g., into binary IP addresses from the responsible computer (and vice versa). Example: <>

A domain is an interconnected section of the internet that is used for addressing computers. Domain names are hierarchically structured; begin with the Top- Level-Domain (e.g., »de« for the German namespace), then include the domain name (e.g., »mitegro«), and can be specified by subdomains (e.g., »mail«). A domain such as »« is not randomly created, but is regulated by specifications of an issuing office (IANA - Internet Assigned Numbers Authority).

DVB-T (abbreviation for »Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial«) refers to a form of overland wireless transmission of digital radio and television signals (as opposed to satellite-based DVB-S).

With E-commerce (short for ›electronic commerce‹) all non-stationary purchase and selling transactions occur, above all, via the internet.

ERP (abbreviation for »Enterprise Resource Planning«) refers to a system for managing resources like capital, staff, equipment and material.

A Framework, as the name implies, makes a simplistic structure available to programmers which can be accessed for applications.

User-friendly interface. See term »Back End«.

A Gadget refers to a technical tool or piece of equipment which demonstrates a functionality and/or special design that is unknown up until now. The German Duden defines Gadget as »a small, refined, technical piece of equipment«. Examples: MP3-Player, Fitness Tracker, Smartwatch. See also terms »Widget«, »Wearable«.

GNU is a freely available operating system which is related to Unix, which at the heart (kernel) builds on Linux, but which makes a great number of applications, libraries and extras available to developers. The name GNU is short for »GNU’s Not Unix«, whereby GNU in its abbreviated form stands for the GNU project. See also the term »Kernel«.

The Hexadecimal system – unlike the better known decimal system - is represented with 16 digits. As the Indo-Arabic counting system however only has the ten digits 0-9 at its disposal, for the digits 10-15 the letters A-F are used. The hexadecimal system was introduced because of the digital binary system (2^4). Example: The decimal/hexadecimal »9« is followed by the decimal »10« or hexadecimal »A«. See also the terms »Bit«, »Byte«.

The term Hotspot is understood to mean a public wireless internet access point. These can not only be installed in public places (libraries, hospitals, airports, railway stations etc.), but also in private (food service industry, hotels etc.). Productive example: German free radio (Freifunk). (

HTML (abbreviation for »Hypertext Markup Language«) is a platform-dependent simple language for designing (titles, lists, tables) and structuring (hyperlinks, pictures) of pages in the hypertextual part of the internet (World Wide Web). See also terms »World Wide Web«, »Hyperlink«.

HTTP (abbreviation for »Hypertext Transfer Protocol«, ›Hypertext Transmission Protocol‹) is a protocol for transmitting data in a network. It is mostly used to store websites from the World Wide Web (WWW) in a browser. See also the terms »World Wide Web«, »Browser«.

HTTPS (abbreviation for »Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure«) is based on the communication protocol HTTP in the World Wide Web, whereby the data are encrypted (bugproof) while being transferred. See also the term »HTTP«.

A Hyperlink (in short, Link) is a hyperlink in a hypertext (e.g., website), which enables jumping from one object to another (website, video, PDF file) or to a jump marker within the same text. Example: Hyperlink in a digital dictionary. See also term »URL«.

Cloud-based infrastructure. See term »Infrastructure as a Service«.

Infrastructure as a Service (abbreviated to IaaS) is understood to mean a flexible structure which replaces the classic operating of an own server with a demand-based leasing of servers, storage etc. (cloud solution). See also the terms »Cloud«, »On-Premises«.

Inserts are inserts, attachments or other supplements which are inserted in advertising material. Unknown advertising media can be used.

The Internet is worldwide the largest network which is based on diverse technical standards (e.g., TCP/IP, DNS) and which as a key element houses the World Wide Web. See also the terms ………

The »Internet of Things«, abbreviated to IoT) is not to be understood as a second, parallel internet, but as an extension of the internet. Thereby, not only computers, but all suitable objects are integrated in the net which communicate with one another and thus should complete tasks for the user. Examples: Repeat order of commodities (milk, toner) when empty, including parcel tracking of the consignment (printer acknowledgement:»Tomorrow from 3 p.m. ready to print again«).

Intranet is an internal, non-public and therefore outwardly shielded network of an organisation which is nevertheless structured like the internet. See also the term »Internet«.

IP (abbreviation for »Internet Protocol«) is a popular standard for network communication and forms the basis of the internet. This includes the addressing of involved equipment with the aid of IP addresses. See also the terms »IP-Address«, »IPv6«.

An IP address is a unique numeric identifier of a computer in a network which is based on the internet protocol (abbreviated to IP) (cf. telephone number). Example: See also terms »IP«, »IPv6«.

IPR (abbreviation for »Intellectual Property Rights«) regulates the protection of intellectual property in all legal dimensions: Patent protection, design protection etc. (copyright). The legal protection of a product or business model is often stipulated by investors.

IPv6 (Abbreviation for »Internet Protocol Version 6«) is a standardised procedure for transmitting data in networks, particularly in the internet. Thanks to the 128-bit addressing it can connect considerably more computers than the previous version IPv4 (32 bits) and regulates the operation of forwarding the data between subnetworks (Routing). See also the terms »IP«, »Routing«.

Abbreviation for »Just-in-time«, see term »Just-in-time«.

With Just-in-time (abbreviated to JIT) the entire material flow in the acquisition is synchronised with the production process. Materials are thereby only delivered at the time when they are required. Advantage: Reduction in warehouse storage costs.

Kernel is the term used to refer to the first, central level of an operating system which immediately accesses the hardware. The kernel manages and organises processes, storage, data, access rights and (further) software.

With KPI (abbreviation for »Key Performance Indicator«) a code is provided which describes the effectiveness of corporate objectives. On machines it can be approximately read how close the actual performance is to the theoretically possible one. On the code it is readable whether there is a need for optimisation.

Leaflet refers to a brochure, handout or flier.

Link in a hypertext. See term »Hyperlink«.

Linux (also GNU/Linux) refers to the operating systems which are based on the Linux Kernel (= operating system kernel) and essentially on the GNU software. It is free software which strongly resembles the classic operating system Unix. See also the term »Kernel«.

Liquid companies demonstrate a high staff turnover as opposed to »Caring Companies«, associated with a relatively core staff as well as a high proportion of staff who have temporary employment contracts. See also the term »Caring Companies«.

Abbreviation for »MITEGRO GmbH & Co. KG«.

»Mixed Reality« (abbreviated to MR) refers to a reality which extends to an artificial (computer generated) perception MR differs from »Augmented Reality« in that virtual areas are created (VR glasses); from »Virtual Reality« in that it is embedded in ›real‹ reality. See also the terms »Augmented Reality«, »Virtual Reality«.

The term Multitasking refers to the ability of an operating system to carry out several tasks virtually parallel. Through the automated processing speed an impression of simultaneousness therefore emerges (multitasking).

NAS (abbreviation for »Network Attached Storage«, refers to an easy to manage server for storing files. With NAS, storage capacity is easily provided in a computer network (network drive).

NAT (abbreviation for »Network Address Translation« is the general term in computer networks for the process which replaces the automated address information in data packets with other ones in order to connect various networks. The network address translation is typically used in routers in order to address computers with private IP addresses which share public IP addresses. Example: Servers with a public IP address which offers various services (E-Mail, Web). See also the term »IP Address«.

NDA (abbreviation for »non-disclosure agreement«) is a non-disclosure or confidentiality agreement which serves to safeguard information.

OEM (abbreviation for »Original Equipment Manufacturer«) is understood to mean a manufacturer of components or products that produces these in its own company, but does not sell them under its own brand.

Omnichannel Fulfillment refers to a particular form of fulfilling a contract which at the ordering process is geared to the requirements of the customers. Thereby, numerous distribution and communication channels (stationary and online) of the company and its partner network are connected to one another (Omnichannel).

On Premises (meaning ›on own premises, on site‹) refers to a usage and/or licensing model in which the company manages hardware and software (own servers, purchases software). This utilisation has been increasingly replaced by the XaaS model (Cloud services, rent). See also the terms »XaaS«, »Cloud«.

»Open Source« refers to software whose source code is public, i.e, can be seen, altered, used and distributed by third parties.

An OS (abbreviation for »Operating System«) is a compilation of computer programs which administers the system resources of a computer such as memory, hard disks as well as input and output devices and makes these application programs available.

Operating system. See term »Operating system«.

Petabyte (abbreviated to PB) is the unit of measurement for extremely large storage volumes. In storage technology this size is common in tape drives and data centres. 1 petabyte = 1 quadrillion (1 000 000 000 000 000) or 10^15 bytes. Top down this is the equivalent of 1 024 terabytes (TB) or more than 1 million gigabytes (GB). At the top 1 024 petabytes are equal to 1 exabyte (EB).

PHP (short for »Personal Home Page Tools«) is a script language which is mainly used for creating dynamic websites or web applications (with databank access and function libraries). Its syntax is inspired by programming languages like Perl and C, one of the most popular programming languages.

Pick by Vision is a solution in the Logistics sector. Hereby, the picker is shown relevant information directly displayed in his field of vision by means of smart glasses. This is referred to as »Augmented Reality supported picking« and optimises the gathering of goods (qualitatively as well as time-wise). See also the term »Augmented Reality«.

PIM (abbreviation for »Product Information Management«) is understood to mean the provision of product information for use in various output media - also in relation to different distribution channels and sites. The prerequisite for this is the media neutral management, care and modification of production information in a central system. Thereby, every distribution channel can be easily provided with consistent, accurate information.

Plug&Play refers to the simple setting up of equipment without having to configurate the computer.

»Predictive Analytics« is understood to mean forecasts on the basis of analysis of historical and current data. Example: Purchase recommendation on the basis of previous purchases or products which other customers have also purchased.

A prosumer (formed out of the words »pro[ducer]« and »[con]sumer«) refers to a person who is at the same time both producer and consumer in order to bring his/her ideas into the production process or to play an active role in it. Through the internet ( in particular the social network) involving consumers has become easier. Example: Consumers notifying companies about suggestions for improvement or malfunctions.

Reengineering refers to the ›radical‹ rethinking and redesigning of company processes, mostly with the support of information technology. The objective thereof is a significant improvement in the areas of cost, quality and time.

RFC (abbreviation for »Requests for Comments«,) is a collection of technical and organisational documents concerning the internet(ISSN 2070-1721). The RFC documents were the basis for the development of standards. Examples: RFC 822 [E-Mail-Format], RFC 1738 [URLs]. (

RFID (abbreviation for »radio frequency identification«) enables the automatic and non-contact identification and localisation of objects and people with the help of radio waves.

Routing refers to the channels for news flow which are determined for message transmission in data centres.

Cloud-based software. See term »Software as a Service«.

A sales folder is an illustrated sales brochure which can be used to assist during a meeting with a customer.

»Sales Impact« is used when evaluating the success of an advertising campaign or a a sales promotion.

A server is a computer, which makes the functionalities like storage space, services or other resources (e.g., processing power) centrally available. Other computers or programs (clients) can use these services via a network. Also individual programs which provide services (E-Mail-Server) are referred to as a server. Examples: Dateiserver, Webserver, E-Mail-Server. See also the terms »Client«, »NAS«, »Cloud«.

With Share of Wallet (abbreviated to SOW) there exists a code which indicates a supplier’s share in the total purchasing volume (where appropriate, for a particular product group). Example: When two suppliers equally divide the total purchasing sum of a customer between them, the Share of Wallet amounts to 50 % for both of them.

Shareware is formed out of »share« and »ware« and refers to a program which can be tested free of charge - possibly with reduced functionality. After a testing period, normally of 30 days, the software must be registered for a fee at the author's company (sometimes for commercial use).

Skill, ›capability, ability; key qualification‹. Example: Language skills.

With »Smart Contracts« contracts are negotiated electronically, concluded and on the basis of defined regulations are automatically monitored. Stored are defined actions which on presentation of completed sections, such as fulfilment of a contract, can be carried out independently. See also the term »E-Commerce«.

»Smart Home« is used to refer to a networked home which can be controlled by sensors and interconnected appliances (from inside) and from outside (owner, service provider). The aim is to increase the quality of life, security and to achieve more efficient use of energy. »Smart Home« is an application of the »Internet of Things«. For example: Controlling blinds, lights depending on brightness; reordering washing powder when it is almost used up . See also term »Internet of Things«.

Software as a Service (abbreviated to SaaS) refers to software which is not locally operated, but is used as a service, which is provided by an external service provider (Cloud solution). See also the terms »Cloud«, »On premises«.

Spam refers to the large amounts of unsolicited emails for advertising purposes. Without previous contact this practice is forbidden in Germany and many other countries.

Spin-off refers to the separation of a business division from a company. The split off unit becomes a separate legal entity.

SQL (abbreviation for »Structured Query Language«) is a databank language. On the one hand, it is used to define data structures (data tables and relationships). On the other hand, with SQL, data(sets) are processed (inserted, altered or deleted) and retrieved (filtered). Examples: Providing names of all customers who have already purchased a Smart Home product; delivering content data to a specific website (URL). See also the terms »Predictive Analytics«, »PIM«, »PHP«.

Start-up refers to a newly founded company mostly associated with an innovative, often also risk-related business idea.

TCP (abbreviation for »Transmission Control Protocol«) is a protocol which defines in which manner data are exchanged in a network. TCP is, alongside the »Internet Protocol« (IP), one of the central standards of the internet. See also the terms »Internet«, »IP«.

Ubuntu is a Linux distribution which is free of charge and which is based on Debian. With the system, the developers pursue the goal of offering a simple to install and user-friendly operating system with compatible software. See also the term »Debian«.

A URL (abbreviation for »Uniform Resource Locator«, ›Internet address, WWW address‹) ist primarily the specific address of a valid website. It can also refer to directories of websites, email addresses, among others. Example: See also the terms »World Wide Web«, »Hyperlink«.

Usability refers to the user friendliness of websites or applications. A good usability distinguishes itself through an intuitive operation (eg., navigation), a good layout (readability) etcetera.

»Virtual Reality« (abbreviated to VR) refers to a constant virtual reality. It is thereby created by the computer and offers via VR glasses an interactive immersion in this artificial world. Example: Skiing experienced as real in own living-room. See also the terms »Augmented Reality«, »Mixed Reality«.

Wearable is a general term to describe portable computers to support and report activities in the real world. They are part of the »Internet of Things« and mainly used for the collection and analysis of data. Example: fitness-tracker; monitoring of vital signs such as pulse or blood pressure. See also the term »Internet of Things«.

Web is the abbreviation for »World Wide Web«, the multimedial and hypertextual part of the internet. See also the term »World Wide Web«.

Program for showing websites. See also the term »Browser«.

Widget is formed out of the words »wi[ndow]« and »[ga]dget« and refers to small applications, often ›in windows‹, which integrate web applications in the system, in particular in mobile appliances. Example: Weather info, stock market quotes, Smart Home info. See also the term »Gadget«.

WLAN (abbreviation for »Wireless Local Area Network«) refers to a local radio network to which computers can connect without cable (wireless network/LAN).

Woofs (short for »Well off older Folks«) refers to older well-off people who are easily influenced by advertising specialists.

The »World Wide Web« (abbreviated to Web, WWW or W3) is a network made up of multimedial hypertext documents (websites)and the most visible part of the internet. Access is via the browser. See also the term »Browser«.

A Web crawler (abbreviated to crawler) is a computer program (Bot) that automatically searches the World Wide Web (WWW) and saves the contents of websites and/or analyses them. Example: Google-Bot (for presenting search results). See also the terms »World Wide Web«, »Bot«.

Everything as a Service (abbreviated to XaaS, EaaS) works exclusively with Cloud solutions, i.e., with the levels Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS, also server), Platform as a Service (PaaS, runtime environment) and Software as a Service (SaaS, Apps) and all realisable services beyond. See also the terms »Cloud«, »App«.

Abbreviation for »Zentralverband der Deutschen Elektro- und Informationstechnischen Handwerke« (Central Association of the German Electrical and Information Technology Trade).